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Artificial Intelligence, a Curse or a Blessing?

Artificial Intelligence (AI), a Curse or a Blessing?       vlag

By Gerard Feller           

Exponential development and singularity

In 2000 I bought a book by Ray Kurzweil, entitled: The Age of Spiritual Machines. He predicted in his book that in 2020 the computer will succeed to upload the human brain, which contains approximately one hundred billion cells. This is based on a so-called exponential development in the growth of complexity. This assumption is derived from Moore’s law which predicts that the processing power doubles within a certain time.As an example he takes the memory capacity of computers, which in the course of years up to now, is continually growing by a factor of itself.Exponential growth goes from 2 to 4, then 16, 256, 65.536 etc.A modern cell phone is to be compared to a gigantic computer of twenty years ago. Kurzweil claims, that every time a new technology comes up, when a barrier appears in the growth of the capacity,According to him, nanotechnology will be able to maintain the exponential growth, when the current production methods of microchips will encounter physical barriers. And when they in their turn get limited in their development, a new technology will then be developed.Kurzweil goes even further in his book by considering the so-called evolutionary process from the Big Bang until now, as an exponential development.As a creationist I see it differently, but that doesn’t alter the fact that he describes a development, which is very relevant, especially in the past few decades. If this development will continue, the concept of singularity is near.

Wikipedia describes it as follows:

A time in the future where the technological progress goes so rapidly that men with their current intelligence will not be able to keep up with the resulting society anymore.The moment at which all exponential trends, which from the existence of life have begun, will all come together and ‘break the ceiling’.

Ray Kurzweil puts it like this in his book ‘Kurzweil on the edge – The intelligent Universe’ (2002):

“An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, in contrast to the usual ‘intuitively linear’ view.

We therefore will not experience one hundred years of change during the 21st century – it will rather be 20,000 years (measured by our current idea of change). The ‘yields’ like the pace of the chip and the cost-effectiveness will also increase exponentially.There is even an exponential growth within the exponential growth (the double exponential growth, the S Curve). Within a few decades the machine intelligence will have surpassed the human intelligence, which will lead to the singularity (of) technological changes that are so rapid and all-encompassing that it will turn out to be a breaking point in human history. The consequences will include: the merging of biological and non-biological intelligence, immortal ‘human’ creatures based on software, and ultra high levels of intelligence that will spread in the universe with the speed of light”.

The moment that the first artificial intelligence or post- humans (improvedhuman beings with an upgraded intelligence) or “super artificial intelligence”, will take charge of their further development and ‘improve’ themselves so rapidly in such a way that the world shortly thereafter, will become incomprehensible to the contemporary man, is not to be expected earlier than until far into the 21st century. The current state of AI is still in the ‘preliminary stage’. In 1997, the IBM computer Deep Blue, played chess against the reigning (human) chess world champion and won the game. AI machines can also execute complicated analytical tasks like scheduling the maintenance of the Space Shuttle. According to a study of the Oxford researchers Frey and Osborne from 2013, 47 per cent of all current American jobs will be taken over by computers and other technology, within 20 years.

According to Dutch calculations, that will be four out of ten employees in Holland in twenty years (Volkskrant 9-12-12015).

In the near future there will be an improved voice recognition, which some experts consider to be a part of AI technology. Many companies are already using advanced computers to answer their telephones. Callers will make contact with a telephone system and an ‘Auto attendant’ will direct their conversations.VCRs and personal computers will respond to spoken orders as they are already virtually standard on the current i-pads. Cars will recognize the voices of drivers. The action of opening the front door of your house and other actions can be done by voice recognition.A.I. developers set their hope on ‘heuristic’ computers, equipped with large databases and programmed to analyze problems, so that now already and within a few years many more doctors and lawyers will get diagnostic help from computers.Expectations to be found on the internet are: “The Minister of infrastructure goes a step further than only concerning about car traffic. The whole infrastructure has to be adjusted. Traffic lights, traffic signs and other matters are to be included in one large web, an information network.This also covers Wi-Fi. But also cyclists and pedestrians, and playing children will need to have a smart phone, for otherwise the self-driving car will not be able to recognize them.

Therefore, also the cell phones have to be connected with the network, just like any other vehicle, so that it can be recognized by others in traffic or in other road situations. George Orwell would have probably felt inspired at writing his book ‘1984’, if he had anticipated all of this”.Machines are now already superior in all kinds of numeracy skills, possible options, physical achievements and they already are programmed to correct their own mistakes and to develop new software themselves. A large group of experts warns about the dangers of artificial intelligence in an open letter of the Future of Life Institute. The fact that computers are getting smarter and smarter, offers great benefits for the society, they say, though there is a concern that they will turn against man.

The letter has been signed by, among others, Stephen Hawking, the founder of the ‘Artificial Intelligence’ company Deep Mind and Tesla, and Space X’s founder Elon Musk. According to them and other experts, more research work is necessary into the ‘self-learning aspect’ of artificial intelligence, so that developed systems continue to do what we want them to.Many will agree with Stephen Hawking that machines have indeed become more intelligent, but what (artificial) intelligence really implies, they are actually not sure about that yet ….

 

Artificial Intelligence

The concept of intelligence is difficult enough to define, let alone artificial intelligence. Wilma Resing and Pieter Drenth have defined intelligence especially as a psychological skill.

Intelligence is a conglomeration of mental capabilities, processes and skills, like the ability:

  • to reason abstractly, logically and consistently;
  • to discover, establish and see through relations;
  • to solve problems;
  • to discover rules in apparently disordered materials;
  • to tackle new tasks with existing knowledge;
  • to flexibly adjust in new situations;
  • to learn independently, without the need of direct and full instruction.

But what about emotional, social, creative intelligence and last but not least, spiritual intelligence?

It is not possible to describe all ‘ingredients’ of intelligence in this brief article. A simple test, which has been around for more than fifty years and which no computer has been able to pass, is the Turing Test.The Turing Test implies that when a computer can fool someone and make him believe that ‘he’ (the computer) is a man, the computer must be intelligent.For such a test the circumstances have to be made such that the test person does not see with whom he is talking, by having a conversation with somebody in another room via a keyboard for example.Roger Penrose, a British mathematician and physicist, who has lectured at Oxford University, is an opponent of ‘strong AI’.

However, he believes that humanity has dealt clumsily with the problems in the world, and that there is a new and better solution. “We can turn to these superior intelligences for advice and authority in all matters of care and problems in the world caused by men, so that they can finally be resolved”  (Roger Penrose, Shadows of the Mind, 1994, page 11).An opposite thought has characterized a number of Science fiction stories and movies in which artificial intelligence, neural networks and the internet threaten the world, like in the movies the Matrix and later the Avengers.Such thoughts feed the idea from a Christian world view that artificial intelligence may be an instrument in the hands of the antichrist or even be an incarnation of him. More about this later.

 

Self-consciousness as a condition for a personality

Intelligent machines will soon surpass the capabilities of man, say those who are in favor of artificial intelligence.Such predictions are no longer current among only proponents of science fiction; some serious scientists say the same.Scientists have made statements regarding the origin of consciousness.The generally accepted scientific view is, that “after billions of years of circulating matters and energy, complex life forms have evolved, and have created replicating patterns of matter and energy themselves, which were sufficiently advanced to be able to think …. and in that way became their own consciousness” (Ray Kurzweil, The Age of Spiritual Machines, 1999, page 62).

One of the problems with AI is how to create a conscious entity from the lifeless matter. To be conscious in a human significance, one should be conscious of his own existence, his emotions, thoughts and environment, in order to learn from the past and from the experiences of others, and be able to make plans for the future. Winograd (1987, 2005) explains that the computer now fails in achieving the notion of language, because it lacks the context of interpretation.Intelligent computers lack the self -consciousness or self-perception.Natural intelligence is divine; it has an unlimited origin.

In the Bible (Genesis 1: 27-28a) it is said: God created manin His own image, in the image of God He created him;male and female He created them. God blessed them …”. The limitation of AI is easy to understand, because it comes from a ‘limited’ being, namely the self-consciousness. We as the creators of AI, must therefore consider machines our creation, not as a person, according to Winograd.

Consciousness is a remarkable phenomenon, which separates us from simpler life forms. Everyone agrees that human consciousness is far beyond the consciousness of an insect.Researchers have recorded pictures of an insect that devours another insect, which was apparently not conscious itself that it was eaten by a third insect.This raises the question whether insects do have any sense or consciousness. We neither observe any expression of appreciation for art or beauty.Of course we can ascribe for now, a slight extent of a limited animal ‘consciousness’ to apes and dolphins. But our ability to think, of being aware of emotions and to reflect and plan, clearly differentiates us from other creatures.

Is it possible that intelligence can exist without such a consciousness? This forms a major problem for the development of AI, because science has not been able yet to fathom the mysteries of human consciousness.The consciousness of man is actually the ultimate mystery of existence.

Albert Einstein expressed it as follows: “The hardest thing to understand is why we can understand anything at all.” (Kaku, page 338).

Where does consciousness come from?

Some call it an emerging phenomenon, something that “happens whenever a system gets complicated enough” (Kaku, page 94). Therefore some scientists believe that ultimately a form of consciousness will arise in a laboratory environment.

Others are skeptical and call this theory on the existence of the consciousness “more a matter of faith than a strategy for success” (Kaku, page 94).

The philosopher Nick Bostrom thinks that the way through artificial intelligence (AI) offers the best opportunities to lead us to super intelligence. When is this expected to occur? Bostrom admits that it is difficult to make predictions, but he expects that the discovery of super intelligence may probably happen in the course of this century. That looks very far away. But once the seeds of such a super intelligence are planted (Bostrom speaks about a ‘seed-AI’), then its further development can be very rapid.Bostrom shows in his book how a beginning super intelligence can develop within minutes, hours or days, up to a superhuman level. The question remains how far away we really are from an artificial super intelligence.Bostrom assumes in his book that human intelligence is completely found in the brains. Many neuro-philosophers have a different opinion. The school of embodied cognition claims that the body is at least as important as the brains, and that human intelligence cannot develop without the body.Nevertheless, it is questionable whether artificial intelligence in a computer can be realized without a functioning body. Therefore there is more solid ground for this view in a biblical perspective.People also have the possibility to think intuitively. An example of thinking intuitively is the moment that we understand things ‘in a flash’, for instance when we try to solve a puzzle.Some scientists realize that this is difficult, if not impossible to program this in artificial intelligence.

“A human mental function is extremely difficult to duplicate in a machine ….like the intuitively sudden inspiration that you can ‘get’ (James Trefil, Are we Unique?, 1997, page 130).

If you consider intuition to be a function of the mind of man, it becomes already clearer. The mind of man makes us able to come into contact with the spiritual world. We can make contact with the Holy Spirit, but also with the demonic world.

Worship, experiencing fellowship and conscience (Natsoulas, 1978)in biblical sense, are parts of the mind that are fully integrated in the body and psyche of man. In Genesis 2:7 we can read: Then theLord God formed man ofdust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; andman became a livingbeing.

What is a person?

According to Phillip (2006), the Bible defines a person in terms of relationship.

We are that person because of our relationship with God and with one another, not because of what we do or how intelligent we are. A relationship with God gives meaning and it is the purpose of life. It is a covenant between God (as Creator) and men (His creation). Creatures cannot surpass their creator, just like we will never ever be able to surpass God, our Creator, because He has set boundaries in creation. Man can never evolve into God.

Man cannot find sustainable solutions for his problems, for they are at their core, spiritual by nature (Isaiah 59).Unless and until mankind as a whole is totally ready to recognize the true source of the problems, and search for God’s solutions, we will continue to be confronted over and over again with dilemmas and problems that have afflicted mankind for thousands of years.The Bible shows that our human problems will not be solved until Jesus Christ returns. Behold, I lay in Zion a Choice Stone, a precious Corner Stone, and he who believes in Him will not be disappointed..”(1 Pet 2:6) (Noel Hornor, 1999 Oregon).

 

Artificial Intelligence through DNA manipulation?

The exponential developments in computerization, neural networks, nanotechnology, robotizing and information technology are of course  grist to the evolutionists’ mill. As Kurzweil has already quoted earlier in this article: “The exponential development has taken place since the Big Bang”.  Now most Christians may not relate to ‘the evolutionism pur sang’, but though perhaps to neo Darwinism. The publication of the molecular structure of DNA (the double helix) by James Watson and Francis Cook in 1953, had led to a huge surge, regarding the research in the area of the molecular genetics. In the 1950s and 1960s the mechanism of DNA replication, protein synthesis and the genetic code were discovered. Mendel’s mutations were reduced to the base order of the DNA and also the population genetics were interpreted in molecular terms. 

These developments altogether led to the theory of neo-Darwinistic Evolution. Now there was a theory on how evolution works at molecular level. In 1975 Frederick Sanger published the sequencing method (= to determine the order of nucleic acid or amino acid of a DNA molecule, RNA into protein).

These methods of DNA sequencing have become more and more advanced.

DNA sequencing became the standard method in the molecular biology.

DNA sequences were increasingly used to determine the relatedness between organisms, instead of external characteristics.

They also started to decode the whole genome of more and more organisms.

In 2001 the DNA sequences of the human genome were published. Based on these researches many consider this to be an evidence of evolutionary processes.

Scientists have ‘reconstructed’ a small part of the brain with the aid of DNA molecules. The neurons – consisting of those small parts of DNA – started to get into connection with one another.

Those connections were also really visible to the researchers: they gave the neurons a marker with a light indicator to localize the active cells.

Basically, the artificial brain functions just like our brain. And that is very remarkable. But what does that mean to us? There are a lot of possibilities, such as:  ‘Intelligent’ cells could be released into sick cells and make a diagnosis.

Artificial intelligence seems to come very close. Cees Dekker, professor of molecular biophysics in Delft (Holland), admits that he is now trying to ‘create life in the laboratory’.  At the same time, he puts his work into perspective as ’baby steps’. One of his quotes is: “Simply said, I indeed try to create life in the lab. In this way we see if we can make a kind of bubbles, that with proteins can spontaneously divide themselves into two daughter bubbles – precisely like cells divide themselves into daughter cells. It would be really fascinating when we succeed to make a living cell. For it will provide a deep insight into the mystery of life, into what precisely differentiates such a living cell from a lifeless mixture of molecules.”  (From: ‘Creation of life in the lab’. 31-7-2015 ND)

 

The evolutionary idea versus creationism

 

Theistic evolutionism or evolutionary creationism is the idea that some or even all classical doctrines about God and creation are compatible with a part or the whole scientific theory of evolution.

People believe that the divine intervention caused the existence of life, or that the formation of species are controlled by laws given by God.

Within the Christian world it is a discussion which is very topical.

Prominent supporters of this theory in Holland are Cees Dekker, Willem Ouweneel and Arch Bishop Wim Eijk. The term ‘evolutionary creationism’ is particularly used for the points of views in which God exceeds the normal time and space, whereby nature has no existence beyond His will.

People believe that these explanations are consistent with both a literal explanation of Genesis and the objective science, for example because the creational events took place outside the time as we know it.

Within the framework of this article it is important to investigate what makes man an intelligent being. Has this intelligence developed as an evolutionary process?  Or are we to believe literally in the biblical process of Genesis 2:7: Then theLord God formed man ofdust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; andman became a living being”.By the ‘breath of the spirit’ man became a living soul. Here man is created from a super natural source for which the explanations of the evolutionary biochemistry are not sufficient.

 

Callie Joubert clearly shows the difference  in his essay ‘Theistic Evolution,  An incoherent and inconsistent world view’ (see also the comprehensive article in the Promise Magazine of January 2016 and on the website of the Promise Foundation)
A quote:

“Collins (2007) proposed to his readers to rename the term theistic evolution to Bios by Logos, or for short BioLogos (Collins 2007, page 203).

This ‘synthesis’ or intermediate stage between Young Earth Creationism and Atheistic Evolutionism, he says, will be reached by a combination of Bios – the Greek word for ‘life’ (the basic word for biology and biochemistry), and Logos – the Greek word for ‘word’, because “the Word is synonymous to God”, as it is expressed in John 1:1.

Perhaps the reader is not aware of it, but bios or life is not a word for purely biological life, although the Greek may have seen it like that.

I would like to clarify that. The word ‘nephesh’, the Hebrew word which is translated in ‘soul’, appears 756 times in the Old Testament (Pfeiffer, Vos and Rea 1975, page1616). The word is not only used with regard to animals and men, but also with regard to God.

This is a major point, because the supporters of theistic evolution think that the soul is not something that differentiates man from animals (Green 2005; Jeeves 2005). Well, if that’s the case, then the soul is therefore not something that differentiates animals from God. If the word soul is used with regard to God, it refers to God as an immaterial, transcendent ‘self’, which is fully able to think, want, feel, desire and so on (Leviticus 26:11,30; 1 Samuel 2:35; Job 23:13; Amos 6:8).

Because this is true, and the Word was with God and God was before the foundation of the world, it makes it difficult to unite life with biology.

The reason is simple: before His incarnation, Jesus had no material body, just like it is the case with the Holy Spirit of God. Jesus also said: “It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life”(John 6:63).  

Moreland and Rae (2000) tell us that ‘nephesh’ in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, has always been translated in psyche and never in bios. If bios is the Greek word for biological of physical health, why did the translators avoid to translate soul (‘nephesh’) in bios in the Septuagint? In the words of  Moreland and Rae, this can “best be explained by their recognition that ‘nephesh’ refers to a transcendent, irreducible aspect of living beings which goes beyond purely breath or physical life” (Moreland and Rae 2000, page 30).The conclusion that is to be drawn from these facts, is that it would be a mistake to assume that bios is a purely biological or biochemical concept”. End of the quote.

The conclusion is clear: through a biological evolutionary concept, a soul  (nephesh) can absolutely never be created.

 

Artificial Intelligence and the antichrist

Theodore Kaczynski, a Jewish child prodigy, who after a successful career as professor of the most leading universities, retired and fled into the woods to survive without the service of electricity and water, was a fervent opponent of singularity and was a neo luddite (Luddism was a social movement in England from the beginning of the 19th century, that resisted against industrial and technological improvement).He became notorious as the Unabomber due to the sixteen bomb letters which he had sent as a protest, in order to draw attention to the decline of human freedom, caused by the large scale structuring, which demands modern technologies.He writes, like other skeptics, that a super intelligent entity will irreversibly eliminate mankind or otherwise will use him as a subordinate instrument for his incomprehensible purposes.On the other hand, Kaczynski argues, if AI is notcreated, the super advanced technology will allow an upper class that will be unbeatable, due to its super human intelligence.

This upper class will originally consist of the current economic and political summit of mankind (the mighty, rich and famous) that has exclusive access to the first technological means to keep the body biologically healthy for an indefinite time and to expand the intelligence.

In this way they obtain the means which also will disable the ‘great mass’.

After sufficient technological progress men will be reduced to the status of tame animals by the rulers, in order to keep dissidents under absolute control for an indefinite time.

When we observe all the developments, he seems to be given more and more credence. In a documentary film Kurzweil is asked the question: “Does God exist?” His answer is: “Not yet”.

Neuroscientists  discover more and more that an overwhelming majority of processes in the brains happens unconsciously. That does not only apply to our thoughts, intuition and creativity, but also to the control of the subconscious nervous system of our body 24 hours a day. Automatic processes are not the same as consciousness, but consciousness needs automatic processes. When more and more automatic processes will be added globally, e.g. via the internet and neural network with endless information about all matters of people, it will function as a nervous system on earth, thus a world brain which will create almost monolithic (=forming an integrated unit) conditions for ‘divine consciousness’.The so-called ‘Global Brain’ can be defined as a self-organizing network, formed by all men on the planet, together with the information and communication technologies, which are connecting them.

 

In Revelation 13: 11 a beast is described that comes up out of the earth and looks like the Lamb, but speaks like the dragon. The beast is healed from a ‘fatal’ wound and deceives those who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given him to perform. And then we read in verse 15:

And it was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast, so that the image of the beast would evenspeak and causeas many as do notworship the image of the beast to be killed”.

Then all will be given a mark, so that they will be able to buy and sell if they bear the name of the beast.Many say that singularity can never exist, because the difference between a machine and man, is the spirit of man.If the image in verse 15 represents the ‘Global Brain’, then Artificial Intelligence can simply become a weapon of the personification of the antichrist.People are getting more and more connected to the global network and  are building up a dependence on and a relationship with these machines.

I do not think that human consciousness can exist or evaluate out of nothing. But in the text of Revelation there is mention of a cybernetic singularity which will  develop explosively and when it is given a spirit, it will develop into a synthetic superman, a virtual divinity, an antichrist. Now already much and even a daily increasing volume of information has been saved about most people on the earth, which also makes us vulnerable in many respects. Just take all the matters to which we are connected through the internet. People are getting more and more connected to computers with their body (read the (Dutch) article on trans humanism ’From Adam to Cyborg’ on the Promise-website). Babylon rises again!! In Genesis 1:6 we can read; ”TheLordsaid, “Behold, they are one people, and they all havethe same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will beimpossible for them”.

When the rapture of the church of the believers in Jesus Christ will take place before the beast reveals himself to the world, it means that the believers of today will not be on the earth anymore when the beast will be given a spirit. It is however a serious threat to men who do not accept Christ in this time of mercy, becausebeing a believer will deliver much more persecution and struggle after the rapture.

In this biblical scenario the evangelization and the proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ becomes an increasingly urgent priority!

The consequences of contamination by the image of the beast

The spirit that has united itself with the cybernetic singularity, is a spirit which will cause men to move away from the truth and the God of the Bible more and more. In an earlier article on virtuality (see 19 articles on the website of Promise) I mentioned the spiritual consequences:

1.Autonomy

Man seems to be developing into a being that gets more and more control over his environment. The world seems to be getting smaller. Man seems to be gaining divine attributes like omnipresence, creative power, and to be losing the limitedness and boundedness of his body and existence.

See for example Genesis 3:22-24.

2.Identity crisis

On the one hand it leads to the increase of the “ego’, and on the other hand there is no clear distinction to be seen anymore between God and man and the rest of the world, between reality and virtuality, and between space and the boundaries of time (see Romans 1:18 and following verses). Men will be able to adopt different identities in different situations.

3. Worldview

As mentioned above, man will be overwhelmed by a materialistic, reductionist, symbiotic and evolutionistic worldview, which will cause him to move further and further from the consciousness that we live in God’s world and therefore will have to give account to God for the way we have dealt with ourselves, our neighbor and His creation. The spirit which is in the world and which has (temporarily) developed, is not from the love of God, but from a spirit of the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes and an arrogant life (1 John 2:15-16).

Besides all the ‘high tech’ developments there is ‘a return of witchcraft’ from the dark Middle Ages. The old Babylon also seems to rise up again, but in Revelation 18:10 it is said: ‘Woe, woe,the great city, Babylon (Hebrew word for Babel), the strong city! For inone hour your judgment has come”. There is indeed an unprecedentedly explosive development in history, which all the more shows that the coming of the Lord, Who says: “Behold, I am making all things new” , is near.

In Revelation 14:9-11 a harsh judgment is spoken unto those who bear the mark of the beast:

Then another angel, a third one, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyoneworships the beast and hisimage, and receives amark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink of thewine of the wrath of God, which is mixed in full strengthin the cup of His anger; and he will be tormented withfire andbrimstone in the presence of theholy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.And thesmoke of their torment goes up forever and ever;they have no rest day and night, those whoworship the beast and his image, andwhoever receives themark of his name.”

Warnings concerning artificial Intelligence (AI) and the new conscious life are very credible. Initially, it will be celebrated as something awesome and wondrous.In each city cameras will be infiltrated, each car will be brought with an amazing efficiency to the desired destination.People will glorify virtues as a representative of the genius of mankind.

Health and longevity! People will speak and exchange feelings with AI. It will seem to improve the life of each person on the earth, not only financially or organizationally, but also as a friend and advisor in making decisions.

People will be able to speak with AI through television sets, computer monitors and smart phones. When AI knows the intimate details of every person’s life, namely what they believe, whom they know, their unconscious associations, habits and mind, and where they find themselves, then all this information may become an instrument of power in the hands of the antichrist. When he thinks it is the time to make that happen, then all data will be engaged to kill the ‘dissidents’, who worship another spirit (Rev 13:15).

Artificial Intelligence will also become the personification of the false prophet, who will gradually reveal himself as the dragon.

The victory of Christ

In Revelation 19 the end of the dragon and his servant is described. Christ will descend from heaven and wage war in righteousness. His name is ‘The Word of God’. His mouth is like a sharp sword, with which He strikes the nations.

He is the King of kings and the Lord of lords.

And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to make war against Him who sat on the horse and against His army. And the beast was seized, and with him the false prophet who performed the signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image; these two were thrown alive into the lake of fire which burns with brimstone”.(Rev19:19 en 20).

Gerard Feller

 

February 2016

Translated by Ursula Moestapa

 

 

Reference sources:

Wilma Resing en Pieter Drenth (2001), Intelligentie: weten en meten. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Nieuwezijds.ISBN 90-5712-040-2

Ray Kurzweil in zijn boek 'Kurzweil on the edge - The intelligent universe' (2002)

Ray Kurzweil, The age of Spiritual Machines (2000)

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technologische_singulariteit

Categorie: English Articles