English Articles

May I have this dance?

By Willem Jan Pijnacker Hordijk                      vlag

update 11-10-2019


1. Introduction 
2. Nine reasons to dance
3. Dances in the Bible
4. Dances in Judaism
5. Dances in Islam
6. Dances in church history
7. Current dances outside and in the church
8. Disputable dances for Christians: AThe Sacred Dance; B. The Esthetic Dance; C. The Tantric Dance
9. Conclusion
1. Introduction

‘Sit still and listen' is the motto in a church service and at school. Especially for many boys, that is very difficult to do. Nowadays, exercise is much more appreciated. This is how people used to listen quietly and devoutly to speeches on the EO (Evangelical Broadcast)-Day for the Youth, but nowadays the emphasis is on singing and action. Shouldn't we use all five senses to serve God? Are dancing, drama and flagging expressions of the transition from a culture of words to a culture of images and experiences that is welcoming or, on the contrary, reprehensible?

According to the Dutch ’ Dikke van Dale Dictionary’, dancing is the movement of the legs and feet and the body to the beat of the music or singing in fixed figures, repeated again and again, as entertainment, as a performance, or as a ceremony. In other words: dancing is a cultivated movement to music and is therefore more than performing uncontrolled movements during any background music.Serious dances are cultivated and they need to be learned and maintained. 

The better you master the art technique, the easier it is to get to the core of the dance, namely the (controlled) expression of emotions with the body.


2.  Nine reasons to dance

a.Dancing gives an instant feeling of happiness. While dancing, a happy hormone is released. Where you have to run for at least 15 minutes to experience the so-called runner’s high (the feeling of euphoria after a run that many people don't have at all), a little dance will give many people an instant feeling of happiness. The music is the crucial ingredient in this.This year, the London School of Economics published a study that shows that dancing makes people just as happy as a salary increase of 2,000 euros on a yearly basis. 

Dancing was compared to other sports and came out as the very best.

b. Dancing reduces stress.

This point is, of course, strongly linked to the previous one. Thoughts stay in your mind but go through your head and real relaxation is therefore not possible. A very good way to clear your head is to dance. A meditation session is nothing.

c. People can dance anytime anywhere.

Good intentions to exercise often end up in the wastebasket, because people don't want to go to the gym or to run into the cold outside air. This is not a problem with dancing. Everyone has a device in the house that can be used to play music.Those who prefer not to dance with spectators, can close the curtains, slide the couch to the side and then 'let themselves go' in the living room.

d. By dancing you exercise in a fun way. 

Many people prefer not to get out of bed for exercise, but dancing is something we all like to do. And if you want to exercise, dancing doesn't have to be less effective than going to the gym.With some dance forms, such as square dancing, the practitioners cover a fair distance on a dance night. Moreover, dancing is often easy to adapt to one's own abilities and can therefore be maintained for a long time.

e. Dancing is not only for young but also for old people.

Dancing is also a fun activity for the elderly. The different movements you make ensure a better sense of balance and stronger muscles and bones. Dancing eldersare therefore more likely to be energetic older people. A problem of many older people is the uncertainty of locomotion that can result in falls with serious consequences such as a broken hip. In dance lessons the sense of balance and responsiveness are practiced and at the same time the condition is improved, which makes the dancers to move forward with more self-confidence.

f. Dancing brings people closer together.

Unless you dance in the room with the curtains closed, dancing is often an activity in which several people come together. Of course there are different dance forms in which a partner is required, but also dances in which only the steps are performed, are very social events. Enjoying the music together brings people closer together.1

g.With dancing, one exercises the coordination between motor skills, memory and emotion. This exercise ensures that new connections are made in the brain.The same goes for playing a musical instrument. Research2 has shown that with children who have learned to play a musical instrument, certain areas of the brain are clearly more developed. It is still possible to create new connections in older people as well. Age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's are at least slowed down as a result.

h.The dance environment can function as a controlled social environment where familiar contacts can be made. The same applies to a church environment. In the past, dancing class in Europe were part of the education in which the dance school provided a safe, controlled environment and in which, in addition to dancing, the correct interaction with each other was also taught.

i.An addition of a dancing Christian: 'Dancing is an emotional dimension. I love being challenged by dance, in order to think about the meaning of words, for example a lyric. If I want to portray a lyric, what does "worship" look like? And how does it differ from "praise", "honor", or "giving thanks"? In addition, it is also an opportunity for me to release myself from words.Just as praying in tongues puts my mind in the background and my spirit in the foreground,I can also freely express feelings that I otherwise control with my mind.

I dare to do so in the safe presence of the Holy Spirit.For each type of dance, there is a certain music with a certain type of functional clothing. It is not right to lump all dance styles together because the range of dances is enormous.3


3. Dances in the Bible

Almost all of the ancient civilizations known to us are familiar with the religious dance. There are no less than 44 words in Hebrew that refer to dancing.For example Let the earth rejoice!’ (Psalm 97:1), which can also be translated as turning around, rotating or dancing in a circle.Clap your hands and stamp your feet and cry out…… (Eze.6:11)’. In the early Christian circles this text was conceived as a defense of and even an unconditional call to dance in the church.Good and bad examples of dancers in the Bible: after crossing the Red Sea, the energetic eighty year old Miriam took the tambourine in her hand, and all the women went after her with tambourines and with dancing (Ex.15:20, see also Ps.150:4), Israel danced around the golden calf... (Ex.32, but: Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written, “The people sat down to eat and drink, and stood up toplay.” 1 Cor. 10:7); the daughter of Jephthah (Judges 11:34); the daughters of Shiloh (Judges 21:21, 23); the women who meet Saul after his victory over the Philistines (1 Sam. 18:6); David dancing before the Ark of the Covenant (2 Sam. 6, 1 Chron. 15:29); the Baal prophets leaped about the altar which they made (1 Kgs. 18:26). "Then the virgin will rejoice in the dance..(Jer.31:13). 

“There is a time to mourn and a time to dance.”(Ecc. 3:4) and the believer could rightly say: You have turned for me my mourning into dancing” (Ps.30:11). In various cases, a religious procession and dances can go hand in hand. The procession itself can also be seen as a form of dance. In Ps.68:25-27 there is case of a festive procession before God. And in Nehemiah 12 we read about the dedication of the city wall around Jerusalem with singers (even large choirs that walked over this new wall in opposite direction) and musicians. It doesn't say that people were dancing at that joyful event, but it seems obvious to me. 

Herodias' daughter danced in such a way that she enchanted her father as it were (Mat.14:6, Mark 6:22). The Lord Jesus thought it logical that people were dancing: Mat.11:17 and Luke.7:32: "We played the flute for you, and you did not dance”“Now his older son was in the field. And as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing” (Luke 15:25).There were church fathers who - under the influence of the so-called Gnosticism, in which the material was considered inferior - spiritualized the dance into, for example, 'the dance of good works'. Nowhere in the Bible do we read that dancing took place in the tabernacle, in the temple or in the synagogue. David appointed musicians and singers, but not dancers (1Chron.25). This confirms the impression that in Israel dancing was not part of the temple cult (in contrast to the prophets of Baal 1Kgs18:26). The dances are usually festive expressions of the believers who expressed their joy and gratitude in this way, especially at processions and feasts.4


4. Dances in Judaism

Orthodox Jews move and dance much. But they always do that separated: men with men and women with women. There are Jews that dance at weddings, at mourning, during Sabbath, the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles, (Sukkot) and the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur).The great joy about the precepts of the Eternal One is expressed by dancing with the Torah scrolls on the ‘Rejoice in the Torah’ (Simchat Torah). People dance with their children on their shoulders and who in this way dance along as well. In these cases there is no question of sacred dance. We do find an ecstatic dance of the mystical movement of the Hassidism. Dancing in Judaism is not an artistic presentation for others ('performance'), but an expression of joy or, on the contrary, of sorrow of the community. A girl who dances for a men's company was certainly unusual in Jewish culture.  

The Jewish girl, Rose Glaser survived the hell of the Holocaust by dancing and teaching dance, even with and for the enemy. So she literally owed her life to dancing.5


5. Dances in Islam

A group within Islam is the mystical Sufism. The Dervish dance is a whirling dance that expresses in a visual way the mystical way of letting go of the resistance to loving everything.The Dervish dance comes from the tradition of Sufism. The Dervish dancers are turning around the axis. Each step symbolizes theturning-point, the return to connectedness with our 'infinite self'.

In addition to the Dervish dance (historically speaking), fight dancing, sword dancing, belly dancing, chain dancing (arms hooked in) and even religious dancing (to sung verses) also belong to the (pre)Muslim culture.The Koran itself, as far as I can tell, says nothing at all about this. Only later it’s stated that dancing is an act of the unbelievers.As in Orthodox Protestantism, there is little support for dancing in the Orthodox direction of Islam. The Turkish Jalal al-Din Rumi (1207-1273) was the founder of the mystical order Mavlana and known as the dancing dervish. His poems with great musicality and visual language were the highlight of Islamic mysticism. In 1925 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (the spiritual leader) in his fight against mysticism had the monastery of Konya closed and banned dancing. It was not until 1960 that the ban was lifted. But today's spiritual leaders seem to think it's still a pernicious activity. "Men are not allowed to dance and sing, and the women are allowed to sing while married, which singing may not contain shamelessness, flirtation or fitnah, but it may only take place between women themselves.”The dancing of a woman in the presence of only women during festivities, such as weddings, etc. is allowed under the following conditions:

.Wearing decent clothing that does not accentuate her feminine forms;

.Not imitating people of immorality;

.Not to dance in an excessive way, which stimulates the lusts of others.6

In Islam, therefore, (sensual) dance is also controversial. The 18-year-old MaedahHojabri was arrested for posting her videos that contain her sensual dance without wearing a headscarf that reached 66,000 followers on Instagram. In the Islamic Republic of Iran there are strict rules about clothing and dancing in public. Public dancing with the opposite sex is only allowed in the presence of immediate family members.The Iranian police decided to close such accounts on Instagram because they would lead to 'moral decline'.7 Ridiculous? It is strange, because the paradise for Muslims is depicted as a literal or metaphorical large orgy.


6. Dancing in church history

The Greeks taught us that the body was something inferior. However, in the popular second-century writing of the 'Shepherd of Hermas' the dance is described as one of the heavenly joys and as part of the worship of God in heaven.Basil of Caesarea called dancing the noblest activity of angels around the year 350. But at the same time Augustine says: 'Dance is a circle with the devil in the center'. So there was quite a lot of difference of opinion and vision about the dance.Proponents of dance were Marnix van St. AldegondeVoetius(provided that it happened inside the chambers between man and woman). Luther and Calvin were not opposed to dancing, although: in an ordinance of 3 February 1547, Calvin forbade any form of dance in Geneva. However, the same Calvin wrote in response to David's dance in front of the ark: 'We must practice and use all our senses and also our feet and our hands and our arms and the rest, so that everything may serve God and magnify Him.8  In 1578, the National Synod of Dordrecht stipulated that those who go dancing will be punished. The Hague Synod of 1586 warned against dance schools and excessive weddings.

An anti-dance treatise from that time is titled: Datligtvaerdigegehuppel– O gruwel(that light-hearted hopping - O horror). A fierce battle raged in the Reformed circle about dancing.A small group of Reformed ministers considered dancing to be out of the question (Dancing was also bad for your health: pregnant women, for example, could have a miscarriage), but the people of the church thought much milder about it. In 1640, people in Amsterdam read a message from all the pulpits against the 'abominable sin of dance'.9

The aforementioned Dutch theologianGisbertusVoetius (1589-1676) wrote about eight anti-dance treatises. He didn't think civilized dancing by yourself was wrong in itself, but he thought the danger of the inclined plane was so great that it would be better not to do it.The reformed leader Philips Marnix from the Saint Aldegonde (1538-1598) wrote in a letter that dancing was one of the so-called adiaphora (mediocre things). In 1633, Dr. MartinusSchalk, a pupil of Voetius by the way, argued that dancing can be an 'acceptable occupation', even for men and women together.10

In the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, priests dance from the earliest times to the present day as part of the Eucharistic Celebration.The roots of the now disappeared Christian sect Shakers lie in the slums of Manchester in the eighteenth century. Ann Lee (1736-1784) led a marginal existence there in a loveless marriage and great poverty.Her physical health suffered enormously from pregnancies and miscarriages,and mentally she suffered from her colorless existence and the premature death of her four children. ‘Mother Ann’ was deeply religious and yearned for signs that her faith would save her from her depressing existence.She found these signs in a group called Quakers that, at their regular meetings, were caught up by a religious fever that manifested itself in shaking and heavy back and forth movements. She established herself as the leader of the group, known as the Shaking Quakers, and she began to preach and kick against the establishment. The Shakers remained so called, as a kind of nickname, although the way of believing and especially the typical dances were changed as early as in 1794. Meacham stylized the dance into a simple dance that could be performed equally by everyone, instead of the wild, shaking and trance-like expressions of faith.Nevertheless, the services of the Shakers remained unusual. The faithful ones did not sit quietly in the church, listening to a preacher, but danced with one another, the men on one side of the room, the women on the other side. They all moved exactly the same, accompanied by songs. ‘Idiot jumping’ according to the writer R.W. Emerson, 'and the shaking with their hands, as if they were dog's legs'. According to another spectator, it looked like something between a walking step and a hop, with the Shakers shaking their hands like penguins are waddling. Anyway, it was interesting enough to attract many outsiders to the Sunday services in the Meeting houses.

For the Shakers, dancing gave them a sense of ‘union’, of togetherness. 

The dance steps remained important to keep the bond with 'Mother Ann' and the original 'Believers' alive. Other steps were added to the dances, such as the Square Order and the Sacred March.11

The American former professional baseball player, but later evangelist and preacher Billy Sunday (1862 - 1935) reached millions of compatriots and hundreds of thousands came to faith in Jesus. Because Sunday hated sin radically, he fervently fought against drunkenness, cinema, drama and dance, among other things. ‘What you sow you will reap: when you sow cards, you reap gamblers. When you sow a bar, you reap drunks. When you sow dancing halls, you reap shame. On the dance floor, you allow liberties that you wouldn't allow elsewhere. It will not stop with dancing with your own spouse. The dance is conductive to immorality and the decay of society. Passion is the basis for the popularity of dance,’ says Billy Sunday.12

The Allies not only freed people from Nazi tyranny, but also shook up stiff Netherlands culturally. The Americans and Canadians promoted smoking and dancing. The liberation is an important key moment. In 1945 there was an eager dance to music that sounded American. After the misery of the Second World War of 1940-1945 everything changed. Everyone wanted a new world. Modern dance and jazz dance became super-popular. There was a lot of dancing in musicals, like in the famous movie Westside story. When the Netherlands was liberated from the Germans, a wave of happiness flooded the whole country. Everywhere there were spontaneous street parties, people were dancing (the Jitterbug) and laughing and yes, making love. ‘Trees heefteenCanadees...' (Trees is a popular Dutch girl’s name and it’s a rhyme for Canadees) It means Trees has a Canadian lover. In this euphoria, moral boundaries were crossed. Approximately 9000 children were born from these relationships. Sometimes their mothers had become pregnant after an evening of partying, but had no idea by which man on which night. Many children, born out of relationships between Dutch women and Canadian soldiers after the liberation, are looking for their father, well, better said: the progenitor of the child.The Christmas message of the Reformed Synod of 1945 denounces "the lust for pleasure, and the frenetic drive ofgetting the maximum out of it, that manifests itself among other things in a dance rage, which despises the sense of joy in life and the sanctification of the body".13 The growing popularity of dance prompted churches to reflect on this phenomenon. Shortly after the Second World War, Rev. Van Veldhuizenweighed up the arguments for and against dancing. 14

It was not until after the Second World War that large dance companies such as the Dutch National Ballet, het NederlandsDans Theater and het Scapino Ballet came into being here, which initially focused mainly on performances for children and young people. While within the conservative Reformation tradition, dance, drama and theatre belong to the world and  are to be avoided, watching TV via the Internet and taking out insurances has become commonplace in these circles.15  

Will dancing be (rightly?) accepted there in the long run? Within the Salvation Army, dancing was taboo, but that has also changed.


7. Current dances outside and within the church

A peculiar form of dance can be found outside the church. The so-called jumping procession in Echternach, Luxembourg, on every 3rd day of Pentecost goes to the grave of Willibrord in the basilica. The participants jump to music sideways and forward. The religious meanings of this procession are: doing penance, expressing joy and paying homage to Saint Willibrord, the patron saint against epilepsy and other health problems.16

Even now it is not easy to determine a position on dancing and drama in the church. The Christian Reformed Synod finds it difficult. Should this be allowed in the Reformed worship services? In the end, the Synod decided not to give room for dance and drama in the church service, because 'this does not fit in with the character of the Reformed worship service'.17 However, Dr. Robert Doornenbal, a Theology and culture lecturer at the CHE (Christian College in Ede), concludes that in following biblical examples and exhortations, Christians have always been dancing from the early church to the present day and sees no objections to the forms of dance that are to the glory of God.18 Especially female dancers promote dancing among Christians / in the church:

Gertruud Bakker-Kemper translated her words into deeds and was a dancer in the church. ‘By dancing you made known to God what your inner state was like.’ 19

* Theatre-maker and drama teacher, dancer Carla Veldhuis came to faith herself after seeing a drama act about creation. She has been inspiring others for over 30 years through catchy presentations, impressive performances of living statues and inspiring training courses and workshops. Veldhuis daily works diligently for the Arts Alive foundation. This foundation allows gifts and talents in the field of art to flourish so that they can be used in honor of God. During the activities, His creativity is reflected with all the affiliated artists. Arts Alive's annual projects include artists' meetings, the Theatre Weekend and 2 theatre performances: the Walking Theatre Dolorosa and the Dance theater Home Run.

Bibliodrama is a method of mirroring your own life story with Bible stories. Playfully and interactively you discover how the Bible story highlights your story, and how your life story plays a role in the explanation of the Bible story. 

This interaction contributes (or can contribute) to the spiritual development of the participants.20

The Workshop for Dance and Christian Spirituality (biblio dance) is a small organization led by RietteBeurmanjer. The story of Moses can be acted out in it, so that the tension is experienced between the God-inspired ideal and an unruly reality.21

Bible stories can be re-enacted. Biblio dance is a form of free dance expression in which you empathize with the biblical persons and your body is the narrator. Experience in the field of dance is not necessary. 

* Then we have the Dance church, which is shaped by four driven people who have Christian roots and a passion for free dance.22

* The Christian woman, AnnemiekeBais leads her dance and theatre studio Christian Dance Formation, Precious23 in Ermelo. 

MariëtteRedel is a Christian and professional dancer. She sees dance as a gift she has been given, which she must use. According to her, dance can certainly have a place in the church, because people are very visual and because it is certainly a language that can appeal to young people.Dance can add something because it can be done with so much persuasiveness.'24

* Together with Esther Mast, Hanneke van der Weele is the driving force behind the creation of Studio 26 (a school for dance and performing arts).Since the establishment of Dansatelier (Dance studio) Velp in 1994, both enthusiastic Christian entrepreneurs have shaped the school in their own way. Their dance school is not specifically Christian. Quality and atmosphere are the most important factors. Apart from the fact that it is of course about dance, it is also about motivations and people's vision.25

* Also prophetess Aimee Verduzco Kovacs has a ministry in the field of dance. ‘Her calling is to bring a better understanding to the Bride of Christ all over the world, about the plan and purpose of dance in the Church by means of education’. ... ‘Michal, David's wife became barren because she despised her husband who was dancing before the Lord. How many churches are infertile because they despise the Davids in their midst and therefore God has written ‘Ichabod’ (the glory is gone) above their doorposts.26 

The statement that a church fails because it is without dance seems an exaggeration to me.

DésiréeHörchner is the artistic director of the Christian Dance Company. Since 1998 C.D.C. has worked mainly with Opwekking (a Revival Foundation) and has performed in churches, theatres and on EO (Evangelical Broadcast) Women's days, but the organization is not only focused on reconciliation between God and man, but also between men or peoples among each other. Honey from the Rock' has performed extensively for the Jewish and Christian community in the Netherlands, Ukraine, Poland and other European countries. Later on there was also dancing during the first Reconciliation Conference in the Netherlands between Jews, Arabs and Christians, co-organized by the Near East Ministry. That was revolutionary. Their dance broke the tension between the two groups and unleashed a lot of emotion. By visualizing Hagar's grief in a dance, you confirm the grief of Arab brothers and sisters, which is equally recognizable by Jewish brothers and sisters.27

* The Christian dance duo ThessaKoops-Gosker and Job van der Wal intend to tell stories without words, which touch the heart and focus on the love of God.28


8. Disputable dances for Christians

A The Sacred Dance.In her urge for healing, Rianne van der Smitte became involved with ‘sacred dance’. With the latter, you perform a kind of cosmic-spiritual dance in a circle, together with a number of other people'.29

What is Sacred Dance? In Sacred Dance, the emphasis is on the experience of the dance. The dances that are danced are mostly existing, simple choreographies. These are usually danced in circles and repeated over and over again. The repetition makes it possible for the dancers to gradually perceive better what this dance does to them. In this way, deepening of the experience can take place. The dances can have both a tranquil and exuberant character and everything in between. The meetings take place under the supervision of a trained teacher. The music to which people dance, ranges from classical, modern, religious to folklore music. Many dances are based on ancient patterns that touch on the rhythm of nature, such as circle, cross, Lemniscaat (the symbol ∞ for 'infinite') and spiral. The dances invite the dancers to experience these patterns and rhythms in their own bodies. Thus, the body is the instrument to make you aware of your way of moving and to focus your attention at this moment. The dancers can experience that they are opening up more and more and will experience and increase their contact with themselves and others. Many people who participate in any form of Sacred Dance indicate that it brings them pleasure and relaxation. They feel freer in their body and movements. It also enriches their lives, they feel more conscious and involved with themselves and others. They experience life with more attention and more in the here and now.30

B. Ecstatic Dance comes originally from Hawaii and aims to get into a state of ecstasy without booze and drugs by the means of moving. You can stir up yourself to get into that state of being 'natural high'. To do this, you have to turn your attention inside yourself. The music is very important here.31To make the Ecstatic Dance experience possible, there are a number of basic rules: .There is no talking while dancing. .Making sound is allowed. .Respect yourself, the other person and their space to dance. .Dance barefoot. . Alcohol, drugs, strong smells are not allowed. .One may dance alone and/or with one or more dance partners. .Practicing yoga during this dance is no problem. It is reminiscent of the dervishes that bring themselves into an ecstasy while dancing. Exciting music can cause you to lose control of yourself and get into a kind of trance. The danger with this kind of dancing is that one opens a door in his life through which spirits other than the Holy Spirit enter. What do you mean by 'sacred'? That door should have remained closed.

C. Tantric Dance is based on Tantra, which is a doctrine from India, a Hindu awakening technique. One of the two dance partners is blindfolded and led by the sighted dance partner. Feeling and touching each other is part of this. For the traditional Tantra you need an initiation, but tantric dance is a newer form and has no rituals. It is a sensual dance that works with sexual energy. In Tantra, sex becomes meditation. Physical and mental adultery are lurking here.


9. Conclusion

It goes for every dance that the intention with which everyone dances, including the related environment where he dances,  determine whether or not the dance is morally acceptable. Moral acceptability changes with time, culture and society. The Argentine tango, for example, was originally considered a vulgar dance in Europe, but was later accepted as a company dance and in the form of the ballroom tango even transformed into a competition dance.


A human being is a whole. Body and soul/spirit can be distinguished, but not separated (holistic). Dance is first and foremost a form of expression and art which you can just enjoy. If you are not so verbal, your body can be a great instrument to express emotions. Let the intentions here be pure. ’For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.’ (1Cor.2:20).

Is it advisable to avoid (escape) every dance?


Dancing in the context of a cult of the dead, in honor of a certain deity, fertility dances, shamelessness, immorality, sensuality and debauchery, are of course taboo for Christians. Mixed dances of men and women together were condemned in church circles. ‘Moving into separate groups’ can be supported from Ps. 68:26. Dancing can lead to divorce or adultery. If you know your own deceitful heart, dancer sur unvolcan (dancing on a volcano) is not a wise thing to do.Our bodies are the temple of the Holy Spirit. Ecstatic dances (without or with XTC or similar means) in which one loses oneself are also not a part of God's will.

Questions for reflection

Can I still be myself? Is my critical consciousness still intact? Is there a kind of collective hypnosis here? To fall into trance is certainly legitimate, but one must always check whether this happens by the Holy Spirit or by (an) unholy spirit(s).

Let us again be guided by Phil.4:8Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is of good repute, if there is any excellence and if anything worthy of praise, dwell on these things’.


drs. W.J.A. Pijnacker Hordijk, translated by Ursula Moestapa


1To https://dansmagazine.nl/nieuws/6-redenen-om-te-dansen (dancing magazine, 6 reasons to dance)

2https://www.mieras.nl/schrijven/wat-muziek-doet-met-kinderhersenen/;https://www.nemokennislink.nl/publicaties/het-oor-van-de-hersenen-meten/ ; https://verkenjegeest.com/het-effect-van-muziek-op-de-hersenen/  (writing/what music does with children’s brains …..The ear of the brains-measure/explore your mind/the effect of music on the brains.)

3 This is an incomplete list of 148 completely different dance styles in alphabetical order: Abstract dance, Academic ballet, Academic dance, Acrobatic rock-'n-roll, Aerobics, American Rhythm, American Smooth,   Argentine tango, artistic swimming or synchronized swimming or water ballet, Bachata, Balboa, Balfolk, Ballet, Ballroom,  Bassedanse (or “low dance”), BibliodanceBiodanza, Bolero, BoogiewoogieBostellaBourrée, Breakdance, Buikdans (Belly dance), Cachucha, Cakewalk, Calypso, Cancan, Capoeira, Chachacha, Charleston, Cheerleading, Chicken, Chunga, Coco, Conga, CongadaCsárdás, Cumbia, Computerdans, C-walk, Dancehall, Dansecaractère (character dance), Dansexpressie(Dance Expression), DanzaDiscofox, Disney dansDodendans (danse macabre (dead)), Dubstep, Ecstatic Dancing, EngelsewalsEuritmie, Fandango, Flamenco, Frevo, Freestyle, Foxtrot, Gaillarde, Gavotte, Gigue, Hakken (form of rave dance originating from the Dutch hardcore), HeadbangenHiphopHofdansen (Court dance), Hora, Horlepiep (Dutch dance), Hula, Jazz ballet, Jitterbug, Jive, Jumpstyle, Jazz ballet, KarakterdansKathakaliKizombaKlassiek ballet, Klompendans (Wooden shoe dance), Koordans (Round dance), Koorddans (Tight rope dance), KrumpingLambada, Landler, LapdanceLatijns-Amerikaansedans, Limbo, Lindy hop,  Linedance, Locking, Macarena, Mambo, Mazurka, Melbourne Shuffle, Menuet, Merengue, Moonwalk, MoshenModernedansMoresca (Morendans), OerdansPaaldansenParendans, Paso doblePavane,  Pogo, Polka, Polonaise, Popping, Quadrille, Quickstep, RaggaReggaetonReidans(Round dance), RepetitievedansRingdansRiverdance, Rock-'n-roll, Rondedans, Rueda de Casino, Rumba, Sacred Dance of SacraleDans of MeditatieveDans, Salsa, Saltarello, Samba, SarabandeShowdanceSirtakiSkankenSlowfox, Son, Square dance, SpringprocessieEchternachStijldansenStreetdance, Striptease, Swing, SwingfoxArgentijnseenBallroomtango, Tantric dance,  TapdansTecktonik, Twirling, Twist, Vogue, Vogeltjesdans (The Tweets), Volksdans (Folk dance), WalsWeensewals (Viennese waltz), IcedansesZouk, Zumba

4 Cees StavleuDance for God, Study bible magazine, Nov. 2007

5 Rosa Regina (Roosje) Glaser (1914-2000) was a Dutch dancer, singer and dance teacher. Before the war she had several dance schools in the Netherlands. As a Jewish woman, she was betrayed by her ex-husband in the Second World War.She was transported to Westerbork, then to Vught and from there to Auschwitz and Ravensbrück. By operating as a dance teacher she eventually survived six concentration-camps. https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosa_Glaser  


7 ‘Dancing is not a crime’, Iranian women write in protest at the arrest of a teenagerNRC.Next, 10-7-2018; Gerhard Wilts, Twee jaarcelvoorIraansenaafdoen hijab (Two years in jail for an Iranian woman after taking off the Hijab)NederlandsDagblad, 10-7-2018

Robert Doornenbal, Dansend de opstanding vieren (Dancing at celebratingtheresurrection), Nederlands Dagblad, 1-11-2013

9 G. Roos, Dansen staat op gespannen voet met Geref. Zeden (Dancing collideswithReformedCustoms), Reformatorisch Dagblad, 9-4-1983

10Gerhard Wilts, ‘Dat ligtvaerdige gehuppel – O gruwel’ (That light-heartedhoppingaround – o horror), Nederlands Dagblad, 14-12-1998, over de scriptie van drs. Suzanne Loohuis naar het verzet van de Gereformeerde Kerken tegen dansen, getiteld ‘Dat ligtvaerdige gehuppel – O gruwel’. (On the essay of drs. Suzanne Loohuis to the opposition of the Reformed Churches against dancing, titled: ‘That light-hearted hopping around)

11 https://www.amerika.nl/amerika/reisgids/amerikaanse-samenleving/shakers/ (American travel guide/American society/shakers)

12 Lee Thomas, Billy Sunday (Californië, VS: van Nuys, 1974), pp. 86-88, 109

13 G. Roos, Dansen staat op gespannen voet met Geref. Zeden (Dancing collideswithReformedCustoms), Reformatorisch Dagblad, 9-4-1983

14 Ds. G. van Veldhuizen AznDansen ja of neen (Dancing, yes or no) (Den Haag: Voorhoeve, 1946)

15 Rick Moeliker en Eymeke Verhoeven, We moeten de wereld mijden’ (We must avoidtheworld), Nederlands Dagblad 1-11-2018. This article appeared as a result of the Driestar College dismissing Arjan van Essen, because he wanted to tell about his gambling past in a theatre performance.

16 Reina Wiskerke, Springprocessie Echternach mag geen folklore worden (Jump Parade Echternach must notbecomefolklore), Nederlands Dagblad, 8-5-2008

17 Gerard ter Horst, Dans en drama houdt de synode bezig (Dance and drama keepstheSynod busy), Nederlands Dagblad, 23-11-2016; Maarten BoersemaGeloof met je hele lichaam (Believewithyourwhole body), Nederlands Dagblad, 6-5-2017

18 Robert Doornenbal, De christelijke dans in de kerkgeschiedenis (The Christian dance in ChurchHistory), Ellips BW32/275 april 2007; Robert Doornenbal, Dansen als geloofsbelijdenis (Dance as a confession of faith), IDEA aug. 2009; Robert Doornenbal, Dansend de opstanding vieren, Nederlands Dagblad, 1-11-2013

19 Titia Lindeboom, Dansen in de kerk (Dancing in theChurch), Christen Vandaag, juli/aug. 1998


21 https://www.riettebeurmanjer.nl/

22  https://www.danskerk.nl/

23 www.precious-dans.nl

24 Joël Valk, De taal van het lichaam (Thelanguage of the body)CV.Koers, nov. 2004

25 Joël Valk, Dansen tot eer van je Schepper (Dancing tothe honor of yourCreator), CV Koers, juli-aug. 2004; https://devliegendespeeldoos.com/hanneke-van-der-weele-esther-mast/ ; https://www.studio26.nl/studio26/medewerkers/directie/hanneke-van-der-weele/ (The Flying Music Box)

26 Marie NeetesonAls God onslof-offer heeftverteerdzal Hijkomen met de manifestatie van zijnzalving (If God has consumed our praise offering, He will come with a manifestation of His anointment), Charisma, dec.2000;https://www.amazon.com/Dancing-into-Anointing-Touching-Through-ebook/dp/B0085X0LGW

27 Jos CorveleijnWewillenbewustvoor God dansen’ (We want to dance consciously before God)Uitdagingapril 2008

28  www.itsmoving.nl, Hanna SmallenbroekDansend de verhalen over God vertellen (Telling the stories about God with dancing)NederlandsDagblad, 27-3-2019

29 Rianne van der Smitte met Jan van der Hoeven, Twee Heren… Alternatieve geneeswijzen van God of van zijn tegenstander? (Two masters ….  Alternative Healing treatments from God or from His adversary?) (Hoornaar: Gideon, 1992), pp. 26, 27

30 http://www.dansparasol.nl/sacred-dance/81-wat-is-sacred-dance

31 Jonas KooymanDansjezelf in extase (Dance yourself into ecstasy)NRC.Next, 5-7-2018 

Categorie: English Articles