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Kabbalah, a turbid forbidden melting pot of truth and falsehood     vlag          

©Door Piet Guijt


The ancient Kabbalah seems to be showing a real ‘come-back'. Regularly you can read about this ancient teaching in contemporary newspapers. Worldwide subsidiaries of the Kabbalah Centre of Rabbi Berg are arising in the United States as mushrooms. Recently the well-known ‘star’ Madonna donated millions of dollars for the foundation of a new Kabbalah Centre in London. Demi Moore has called in the Jewish Kabbalah movement in order to make her much younger boyfriend Ashton Kutcher a real familyman. She got this tip from Madonna, who says that the movement has helped her to bridle her husband. Demi is now trying to get Ashton to drink the water of the Kabbalah Centre, because it is supposed to give positive energy and healing powers. Also Mick Jagger turned to a Kabbalist because of problems with his marriage. The lectures on Kabbalah at the University of Leiden draw full houses. The Dutch Society for the Promotion of Knowledge of Kabbalah (Nederlandse Vereniging tot Bevordering van Kennis van Kabbala), attached to the Bnei Baruch Center of Rabbi Portnaar, wants to contribute to "make healthy people and society" with this ancient ‘science’ by a website (www.kabbalah.info/dutchkab) (2). 

Because today there is much speculation about the Kabbalah as secret doctrine, and because also Christians feel they are attracted to this Jewish mysticism, it is important to analyze things in order to show how far the orthodox Judaism is removed from the reliable biblical basis, and because of that just has become accessible to the most absurd and occult beliefs, by which the Torah (the five books of Moses, called the Pentateuch) has been made a medium to come into contact with the invisible (demonic) world (1). 

What is Kabbalah?

The word Kabbalah means nothing more than 'tradition'. Because it is a Hebrew word, the emphasis is on the last syllable: kabba láh. The original Hebrew root 'k-b-l' means: 'that which is received' and refers to the received wisdom and mystical knowledge, which - according to tradition - is supposed to be directly coming from God. Originally God supposedly revealed the mysteries of Kabbalah to angels, and the angels supposedly then passed it to Adam, Noah, Abraham and Sarah. Abraham thereafter wrote the Book of Creation (Sepher = Yetsirah) (2).
The Dutch Van Dale dictionary mentions about Kabbalah: "secret doctrine and mysticism of the Jews in the Middle Ages" and about mysticism: "passionate effort after the special union of the soul with God and God with man". Elsewhere Kabbalah is described as "a mystical movement in Judaism, which deals with the identification of the deeper meaning, which is hiding behind the letters, pictographs and words of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh (= Old Testament)". The Kabbalah focuses primarily on the creation story and the visionary parts of the Scriptures, and tries to trace what was before the creation and what is beyond the visible sky. Rabbi Portnaar says: "Kabbalah is the science of containing the Highest, which is the spiritual world, from which everything descends into our world. Studying Kabbalah gives man the ability to understand the reasons for the events in our world" (2). According to the writer Erich Bischoff the Kabbalah includes "the tradition (mainly transmitted orally by the Talmudists) of the secret doctrine concerning the nature of God (and how this being is revealed), concerning the laws of creation, and concerning transmigration and reincarnation. Besides this metaphysical character Kabbalah has a second part: a magic one. This side largely relates to calling demonic powers through magic formulas, and to letters and number combinations which are mainly used in amulets and blessing and curse formulas" (6).  
Professor dr. W. Ouweneel (9) defines the Kabbalah as "the Jewish occultism that ultimately goes back to (mutilated) Biblical truths, mixed with mysticism, Gnosticism, astrology and magic, the latter mainly associated with the numerical value of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet". According to Rebecca Brown and Daniel Yoder (8)

"the doctrine of the Kabbalah is a religion of spiritual power, and a continuation of the old worship service of Baal and Moloch (which in the Old Testament was severely condemned by God). In reality, it is a form of Satanism, although the people, who are part of it, never use the name Satan. They teach and serve the "Master"".

We see a diversity of views on the Kabbalah, a motive to consider it further. Given the extensive literature on Kabbalah it only can be a very limited consideration in some main lines.

History and writings of Kabbalah

According to the Kabbalists the ‘Book of Creation’ (Sepher = Yetsirah) is the basis for all their literature. Although Abraham is designated as the writer, the document (with 3000 words) is probably composed by Rabbi Akiva in the early rabbinic period (early 2nd century A.D.). In the writing, the universe can be described using the so-called Sefiroth (= spheres), and relationships can be explained that exist between heaven and earth; between the angelic world and life on earth. The oldest book "Sepher Yetsirah" (from before Chr.) is seen by Jewish scholars as the darkest and most difficult book of Jewish literature. The Talmud teaches that certain rabbis also used this "Sepher Yetsirah" for spells and magical practices (2,4).   
Of great significance to the Kabbalah has been the so-called merkava mystic, which means: ‘complicated secrets’. There is an extensive literature from the 4th to the 10th century in Hebrew and Aramaic. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakiesj, the patriarchs are supposed to be the authors of the merkava mystic. By endless repetitions of all possible accumulations of synonyms and meditation they tried to obtain information (directly or through revelations by various angels) about the ascension of the soul. From the 6th century dates the publication of the magical handbook ‘Charba the Moshe’ in which elements from the merkava mystic are mixed with pure magic. The abuse of the Bible in performing witchcraft arose in those days, and presumably from this literature emerged the thought of the ancient Kabbalists that the Torah supposedly is  nothing else than a powerful complex of names of God. The book Yetsirah, which probably comes from Babylonia, deals with the structure of the cosmos in which the arrangement of the different spheres is associated with the mystical power of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet, that supposedly revealed the secrets of the universe and God [letters are supposed to be the primal element of creation by the word, the Logos; there was an endless speculation about e.g.


previous worlds and the pre-existence of the time]. From the idea that the forces are included in the language, the words, is derived the teaching of the Kabbalah that the four letters of the name of God (YHWH) represent the progress of world history (1).

In the 12th century the ‘Book of the Radiant Light’ (= Sefer ha-Bahir) appeared, by hich the Kabbalah became a more philosophical movement. This book supposedly was written in the 1st century by Nechuniya ben Hakana. In the later Middle Ages, the Spanish mystic Moses de Leon (ca. 1240 – ca. 1305) probably wrote the Zohar (= Book of Radiance), the most important writing of Kabbalah. Other Jewish writers believe that the Zohar (or Sohar) supposedly is written for the first time about the first century A.D. and that Moses de Leon has adapted earlier writings. The Zohar consists of a large collection of commentaries on the Torah and later parts of the Old Testament. Later, more mystical writings were included in the Zohar, such as the ‘Sitrei Torah’ (= Secrets of the Torah) and the ‘Midrassh ha-Ne'elam’ (= Hidden Meaning). In the Zohar we also find the ‘Tree of Life’, which is meant to achieve spiritual enlightenment (2). Since the 13th century, the total collection of what is present to mysticism in Judaism is known as Kabbalah.

In the period 1100-1500, the Kabbalah also included philosophical elements. There came philosophical explanations of the history of creation and speculations on world history. In this period Abraham Aboelafia in Barcelona was the representative of the ecstatic set of Kabbalah. The doctrine of contemplation about letter synthesis became more complicated. It contained the basis for the magical Kabbalah in Safed in Israel (1). (From the beginning of the 13th century the Spanish Gerona was a major Kabbalistic center. However, when anti-Semitism (Inquisition) expelled the Jews from Spain, many of them searched for a safe haven in the city of Safed in the Palestine of that time) (2). In that place later (around 1550), originated the remarkable book ‘Gale Rasaia’ (written by an anonymous writer), in which mainly the phenomenon of transmigration is treated (1). 

Around 1750 the Kabbalah was also booming in Poland, after the establishment of the mystical Hasidic movement. After a decline in the 19th century (e.g. by Zionism and the Enlightenment) a new golden age followed in the 20th century. In the Palestine of that time Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook was (1865 - 1935) an important Kabbalist (2).
Parallel to the Bible, Jewish mystics have developed their own worldview, that is trying to include ‘the world of the spirit’ apart from all the material. These mystics try to climb up to a higher mode of existence through meditation and keeping the 613 commandments and prohibitions. But he who investigates the teachings of the Kabbalah begins to understand something of the mostly unsympathetic behavior of orthodox fanatics and their spiritual pride against dissidents (1).
The teachings of Kabbalah

 Some elements of the Kabbalah have been mentioned already. Below we give a more systematic description of the contents of the Kabbalah. There are some important parts.
1) The relationship of God to creation. Kabbalists want to penetrate into the secret of creation and to the inner life of God. Seen from that desire it is obvious that for a Kabbalist a suffering Servant, who dies on a cross, does not meet the lofty idea that the pious Jew makes of Deity. Therefore Jews do not want to have to deal with the ignominious death of a Messiah who is under God's protection, because in their view the Godhead reveals Himself in power and not in weakness (1).
2) So-called Sephiroth (plural of ‘saffir’ that means light shine) are identified. These are rankings or shades in creation, in other words, attributes or emanations of the divine (1). The 10 Sephiroth, connected by 22 lines (due to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabeth) constitute the 'tree of the Sephiroth’, also called the ‘Kabbalistic tree’ or ‘tree of life’ (see note below). The system of 10 Sephiroth is similar to the chakra system of Hindu yoga in order to enter the astral world (9). Extremely difficult concentration and meditation exercises have to be trained. As in the yoga also the Kabbalist has devised special postures and breathing techniques to train imagination and concentration in order to come to self-hypnosis and trance. All this is not without great dangers (9).
3) The old worlds that are manifesting both the divine and the earthly realm. Based on Isaiah 43:7 ("every one that is called by My name: For I have created him for My glory; I have formed him; yea, I have made him") these worlds are called: Atzilut or Atsilut (the 10 Sephiroth, the world of emanation or proximity), Beria (the world of creation, usually the angels), Yetzirah or Yetsirah (the world of form and design, the world of the spheres) and Assia or Assiyya (the world of the act) about which there are  different views (e.g. world of matter and of evil spirits) (1,2).
4) The problem of (the birth of) evil. The Zohar elaborates the idea of ​​the book Bahir that the evil supposedly is the 5th Sephiroth (force or judgment), the left hand of God, to the doctrine that the origin of the evil lies in a punishing power. This has separated itsself from the fellowship of grace, by which judgment is appearing independently, thus creating the realm of the demonic powers (1). Here we see that truth and lies are mixed. 
5) The anthropology of Kabbalah. Man is the most complete and highest cosmic form, and crown of creation. He has a free will, and he can promote or interfere with the unity of everything in heaven and on earth. The essence of man is purely spiritual. The body is seen as a mere mortal shell, a product of the Fall (1).

A certain part of the Kabbalah deserves a special mention, namely the so-called Gematria. This numbers mysticism became in vogue especially between the 8th and 11th centuries and has strongly influenced the Kabbalah. The number mysticism was seen as a way to reveal hidden biblical meanings. Each of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet was given a numerical value (aleph = 1, beth = 2, gimmel = 3, etc.). The letters were also given a symbolic meaning (aleph = powerhouse, beth = passivity, etc.). Actually, the symbolism of numbers is very old. Also the Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians were very skilled in it. Especially was a relationship was sought between the position and course of the heavenly bodies and their significance for life on earth (2). In itself, the recognition of certain meanings of numbers certainly is not wrong. After all, not for nothing the Bible mentions certain numbers such as 3, 7, 8,12, 40, 50 etc.. But the danger is that people are going too far, and then (l.o.) evil can abuse things of God. The Kabbalah has crossed a line, and one is deceived by evil spirits, ending in occult matters.

Also we must point out that in the Kabalah there appears a doctrine of the transmigration of souls, and this in all possible forms. In the book Bahir you can find the metempsychosis(transmigration of souls) as the solution to the problem of debt compensation, which is reminiscent of the karma-thinking in Hinduism. Thus, the soul of the man is supposed to come to order by the observance of the 613 commandments and prohibitions of the Torah. It is a system of self-redemption. The endless process of reincarnations is supposed to be shortened by performing certain rituals. As punishment even a reversion into the mineral kingdom may be imposed. So we see various absurdities in Kabbalistic thought. Kabbalah also has an astrological and Kabbalistic alchemy (1). In the Kabbalah also a mystical, philosophical branch (with the aim of unification of man with God) and a magical branch (to control mental and physical powers and to use them for or against others) are distinguished.

Other occult aspects in the Kabbalah


The orthodox, Kabbalistic Jews see the liberal Jews as fools (unjust people). But the error of the Orthodox is that not the intellect determines whether someone is just or unjust. Moreover, in performing religious rituals they are not focused on the neighbor who is to be loved, but merely on formal actions by which one believes to acquire God’s grace. Such religious acts may be labeled as a form of spiritual selfishness. In addition, certain meditations of the mystic way may present great physical and spiritual dangers. All these practices go into the occult, and bring dark forces in action. To the complex of techniques belongs the prayer mystical in which magic is performed in the name of God by trying in own strength to get the Deity tangible by reciting or through reflection (intention).


In the ‘Ruach ha-Kodesh’ even several practices are suggested that serve mainly to get contact with deceased believers! In Kabbalistic circles in Tel Aviv (Benei Brak) and Jerusalem (Mea Sjeariem) there is great hunger for Kabbalistic experiences, and they are looking feverishly for the secret formulas (i.e. spells) in the manuscripts of Abraham Aboelafias aforementioned. In several synagogues meditation regulations are taught and practiced, a study that requires many years of spiritual exercise. One does not realize that one is a toy of demonic powers. Real biblical visions do not arise from a particular technique but are spontaneous. God is sovereign and cannot be manipulated. All ecstatic contemplation exercises, which intend to replace the Mediator role of the Messiah Jesus Christ who was sent by God, have to be qualified as occult practices and be rejected. The very fact that there are demonic powers and the possibility that people may come into contact with them makes the distinguishing of spirits indispensable. Who is ignorant of the deception, can become a prey of the dark forces, which will be increasingly active as the end time progresses (1).  
Unmistakably the mystical meditation leads to occultism, but Kabbalists rather would not speak about it and they cover it with a veil of secrecy. Therefore it is important to make public all this to show to Christians in what occult atmosphere Orthodox Judaism moves. Even there is Kabbalistic literature that can be read only with occult senses and that gives instructions for e.g. automatically writing, which is writing under the inspiration (read: coercion) of evil spirits, of which the Kabbalists assume that this is the work of the Holy Spirit, while in reality the powers of darkness are at work! This shows how necessary the evangelical witness to the Jews is, and how wrong the view is as if there is another way to eternal salvation for the Jews than by faith in Jesus Christ. HE who glorifies todays Israel as if it is the already by Jeshoea ha Mashiach (Jesus Christ) ruled and a by the Spirit renewed nation, is himself a deceiver of both Jews and Christians (1). 

A study of Kabbalah shows that there is a close relationship with many other spiritual and mystical teachings. We see parallels with Hinduism (Brahma, Vishnu and Krishna are analogous to the three 'pillars' in the world of Atsilut: expansiveness, creativity and restrictiveness). The ideas of Plato correspond to the principles of Yetsirah. Also in Buddhism we find a symbolic ‘tree of life’ as the pivot of the universe. In the Quran the Kabbalah finds connection regarding the 'angelology', where there are eight angels who support the throne of Allah. In the ancient Persian religions you can find angels, as they are ‘seen’ by the Kabbalists. Freemasons, Theosophists, Mystics, Templars, Rosicrucian’s and many others took the Kabbalah as the basis of their learning. The Freemason Ragon even stated that the Kabbalah is THE key to all occult science and that the Gnostics were born out of the Kabbalists (1,4).

Critical commentary on the Kabbalah

It has already been pointed out that there are negative aspects of Kabbalah. How should we assess the Kabbalah in the light of the Bible? Where the Kabbalist is searching for what was before creation and what is beyond the visible heaven, God's Word explicitly warns in Deut. 29:29: "The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children forever". Opposed to bringing about the salvation of the worldby own human efforts, such as the Kabbalah states, the Bible says that we are "being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus"(Rom. 3:24). God's Word points to "the Beloved, in Whom we have redemption through His blood" (Eph. 1:7) (2).

In the Sepher ha-Bahir is spoken about the nature of God and the existence of Satan. It is - as in Gnosticism - assumed that evil is an integral part of God Himself! However, we know that "God is light and in Him is no darkness at all" (1 John1:5) and "what communion has light with darkness?" (2 Cor. 6:14). The Kabbalah distinguishes between Lucifer and Satan. The first would be less evil than the second. However 2 Cor. 11:14 tells us that Satan is the same spirit as the angel of light, named Lucifer (2).

Where particularly Sepher Yetsirah was used for incanting and magical practices, we know that in the Old Testament magic and sorceryare inseperately condemned (e.g. inLev. 19:26, Deut. 18:10; 2 Kings 17:17 and Jer. 27:9). In the Zohar, the purpose of human life is expressed as: “raising the soul to union with God by awareness". The Bible teaches that we have repented "from idols to God, toserve the living and true God, and to wait for His Son from Heaven, whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus, who delivered us from the wrath to come"(1 Tess.1: 9 and 10) (2).

Occultism in general, and also the Kabbalah as philosophy, stimulates human curiosity; however it is an unholy curiosity. Occultism is entering the spiritual world contrary to the way that God has pointed out, so it is beyond the God-given boundary. This is seen already in the book of Genesis where Eve is tempted by the serpentto eat from the 'tree of knowledge of good and evil’. It is remarkable that this very tree is seenin the Kabbalah as the 'tree of life'. What an error, because the tree of life is an image of Jesus Christ. Also the construction of the tower of Babel

is a form of occultism, the human desire to achieve God from the earth, from man himselfin his own strength. Knowledge, and certainly occult knowledge, glorifies man. God wants to reveal Himself to His children, but in His time and on His terms, namely by personal faith in Jesus Christ as Savior by which man is reconciled with God, and that by grace alone, and not by his own effort. God wants to surprise His children, so why should we try to unlock secrets of God in our own strength? The latter is the pitfall of evil, represented by the ‘tree of knowledge of good and evil’. We must be like the 'little ones', as the children of God. He wants to be our heavenly Father. We may entrust ourselves to God, even though the mysteries of creation are not revealedyet. Jesus said: "Verily I say unto you, whosoever shall not receive the Kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein" (Mark 10:15) and Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit when He said: "I thank Thee, O Father, Lord of Heaven and earth, that Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, Father, forso it seemed good in Thy sight"(Luke 10:21).

In conclusion we may say that the Kabbalah tries to find a connection between man and God in an extra-biblical way of thinking, and tries to bring both in relationship with the spiritual forces in the universe. The traditional Kabbalist practices a secret art, by which unusual knowledge of cosmic laws and forces can be applied for human 'welfare'. This is nothing but magic and occultism. Isaac da Costa wrote in his ‘Israel and the Peoples': "The Kabbalah is a chaos of fetched vanities, from which here and there a ray of higher Biblical truths breaks through". Precisely this was raising interest in the Kabbalah for centuries, even for many Christians, especially those who earnestly looked for reconciliation between Jews and Christians. Unfortunately the result was that one became caught up in 'mystical strangeness’s’ and ‘magical powers’. Why should we seek the way to God through the vague, complex and extra-biblical way of Kabbalah? God Himself gave us His Word as "a lamp to my feet and a light for my path" (Ps. 119:105) and Christ said: ".. no one comes to the Father except through Me" (John 14:6). Thank Him for "the Word of the Lord endureth forever" (1 Pet. 1:25) and "the power of God unto salvation to everyone who believeth, to the Jew first and also to the Greek" (Rom. 1:16) (2). 

The Jewish writer Pülzdiscusses in the treatment of Kabbalah on the implications of it for the Jewish people. He says: "Who does not know the meaning of Kabbalah for Judaism and Jewish life, will never understand how orthodox Jews think about faith issues. The Kabbalah with its hodge-podge of half-truths and inventions (fables mentioned in 2 Cor. 11:14; 1 Tim. 1:4; 2 Tim. 4:4; Titus 1: 13 and 14; 2 Peter 1:16.) has moved (parts of) the Jewish people further away from Yeshua, and has given a wide open port for dark forces, and mainly because Judaism denies the existence of anti-divine powers. Instead of accepting salvation by God through His Anointed Saviour Jesus (Yeshua = God saves), they glory in a so called process of fusion of body, soul and spirit, by which they think to reach the perfection of the cosmos. The Kabbalah that is being seen by some of the Jews as the highest knowledge leads in reality to the deepest abyss.  As the Savior Himself has experienced during His ministry on earth, especially the religious leaders of Israel were ruled by evil powers. And if the Kabbalistic practices really would intend to look for the working of the Holy Spirit, they would have recognized that Yeshua is the promised Messiah and that there will be no other" (1).  
What the result of the Kabbalistic practice can be, we see in the shocking testimony of Daniel Yoder (8), the son of wealthy American Jews. He was sent to an exclusive boarding school (a center of Kabbalistic practices) in Europe where he was a victim of severe ritual abuse for many years. He was forced to participate in cruel rituals during which the 'Master' was worshiped. As is common in very rich families, his parents arranged a marriage for him with Kai, a Jewess, who as a child was abused severely in the Kabbalism. If he should refuse to marry her, he would be disinherited. One year after the enforced marriage ceremony Kai accepted Jesus Christ as her Savior. Daniel received from his parents the express command that they should remain silent about her faith in Jesus. At one certain moment Kai was kidnapped and forced to renounce Jesus and if not, she would be killed. Kai and Daniel were flown to Israel. While Daniel was chained to a wall, he was forced to see how his wife was tortured to death! By the testimony and the death of Kai, Daniel comes to faith in Jesus shortly afterwards, and his parents try to kill him through assassins (8). By this shocking story we see how great the hate of Kabbalists is against Jesus and His followers! That speaks volumes about the (satanic) spirit behind the Kabbalah. Of course it may be objected that this is an extreme situation. We hope so, but it shows the big contradiction between the biblical message of which Jesus Christ is the core, and the Kabbalah, which rejects Jesus as the suffering Messiah.


It is not the intention of this article to judge people, but to warn about deception. It is very important that we test everything that comes to us from the spiritual world, on the basis of the Word of God. Because Satan can appear as an angel of light (2 Cor. 11:14), and the seductive power of the dark forces are almost unlimited. Therefore, the discernment of spirits, a gift of the Holy Spirit, is indispensable for (Christians. Ultimately it's about learning to trust in God, Who is Love, and Who, from that love, gave His Son to reconcile us with Him. Outside Jesus Christ there is no salvation.

Drs. Piet Guijt - February 2004.
(This article is partly a significant shortening (including adapting) of a very extensive article ‘Superstition and Kabbalah with the Jews’ (‘Bijgeloof en Kabbala bij de Joden’) by the Messianic Jew K.M. Pülz, and for another part slightly adapted contributions from Alfred Esch (‘Kabbalah. The Yoga of the West?’), and has also been supplemented with information from various other sources)
Thanks also to Herb Boyd

Pülz, K.M, Superstition and Kabbalah in Judaism (Bijgeloof en Kabbala in het Jodendom)
. In: Israel and the Bible.
2. Esch, A., Kabbalah, The Yoga of the West? (
Kabbala, Het yoga van het westen?)

3. Isaacson, B., Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Bantam Books, New Jersey, 1979.
4. Baaren, J. I. van, The Kabbalah in the light of the Bible (
De Kabbala in het licht van de Bijbel). Stichting Moria (Moriah Foundation), Amsterdam, 1980.
5. Müller, E., Zohar, The Holy Book of Kabbalah (
Het Heilige Boek van de Kabbala)
. Ankh-Hermes, Deventer, 1984.
6. Erich Bischoff, The Kabbalah. Introduction to Jewish mysticism and secret science.
Uitgeverij Schors
, Amsterdam, 1984.
7. Camphuizen, R.C., Tarrot and Kabbalah.
Uitgeverij Schors
, Amsterdam, 1993.
8. Brown, Rebecca and Daniel Yoder, Unbroken curses (
Onverbroken vloeken)
, Gazon Uitgeverij, 1995.
9. Ouweneel, W.J., The domain of the snake. Handbook on Christian occultism and mysticism (
Het domein van de slang. Christelijk handboek over occultisme en mysticisme)
. Buijten & Schipperheijn, Amsterdam, 1996.
10. Berenson-Perkins, J., The Kabbalah Decrypted (
De Kabbala Ontcijferd)
. Librero, Kerkdriel, 2002.

(By Esch reference is made to the literature with the numbers 3 to 5, 7 and 10)






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